Facts & Figures:
President: Imomali Rakhmonov (1992)
Prime Minister: Akil Akilov (1999)
Land area: 55,251 sq mi (143,100 sq km); total area: 55,251 sq mi (143,100 sq km)
Population (2012 est.): 7,768,385 (growth rate: 1.823%);
Birth rate: 25.93/1000;
Infant mortality rate: 37.33/1000;
Life expectancy: 66.38;
Density per sq mi: 125.8
Capital and largest city (2008 est.): Dushanbe, 679,400
Other large city: Khujand, 155,900
Monetary unit: somoni
Its three highest mountains are Ismoil Somoni Peak (known from 1932–1962 as Stalin Peak, and from 1962–1998 as Communism Peak), 7,495 m (24,590 ft); Ibn Sina Peak (still unofficially known as Lenin Peak), 7,134 m (23,406 ft); and Peak Korzhenevskaya (Russian: Пик Корженевской, Pik Korzhenevskoi), 7,105 m (23,310 ft).
There are many glaciers in the Pamir Mountains, including the 77 km (48 mile) long Fedchenko Glacier, the longest in the former USSR and the longest glacier outside the Polar region.
The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia formed by the junction of the Himalayas with Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges.
They are among the world’s highest mountains, and since Victorian times, they have been known as the "Roof of the World", presumably a translation from Persian.
The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains is debatable. They lie mostly in Gorno-Badakhshan province inTajikistan and Badakshan Province in Afghanistan.
To the north they join the Tian Shan mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan.
To the south they join the Hindu Kush mountains along the Wakhan Corridor in Afghanistan and Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan.
To the east they may end on the Chinese border or extend to the range that includes Kongur Tagh which is sometimes included in the Kunlun Mountains.
Covered in snow throughout the year, the Pamirs have long and bitterly cold winters, and short, cool summers. Annual precipitation is about 130 mm (5 in), which supports grass lands but few trees.